Faculty and Student Publications


Toshikazu Ikuta

Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 2015


This paper explores interactions between quantifier scope and topic/focus. More specifically, it is demonstrated that quantifier raising (as in English) can be accounted for as a consequence of covert topic/focus movement to higher projections. First, the delta QP hypothesis is proposed, which is characterized by (a) a universal principle of movement to Δ projection to satisfy [+topic] and [+focus] features and (b) parameterized strength of these features. Following Lambova's (2004) account of Bulgarian, these features are strong and thus NPs with these features must undergo movement prior to Spell-Out. On the other hand, these features are weak in English and therefore movement must take place after Spell-Out. This follows the absence of Topic/Focus obligatory movement in English. Second, it will be shown that the above proposal indeed corresponds to the scope interpretations of quantifiers under specific topic and focus allocation. Finally, it is shown that the delta QP hypothesis makes accurate predictions for Bulgarian quantifiers.



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