Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ed.D. in Education



First Advisor

Allan Bellman

Second Advisor

Tom Brady

Third Advisor

Renee Cunningham

Relational Format



How often are teachers surprised to find out at the end of a learning episode that students have not actually learned? The first Mathematics Teaching Practice from NCTM’s Principles to Actions asserts that “effective teaching of mathematics establishes clear goals for the mathematics that students are learning, situates goals within learning progressions, and uses the goals to guide instructional decisions” (NCTM, 2014, p. 10). Unfortunately, many teachers struggle to establish clear goals to focus learning, and many students struggle to meet those goals. This research study considered how well students predict success on learning targets for an upcoming test when they are given the chance to rate themselves before they take the test and whether treatments such as worked examples and metacognitive strategies move predicted levels closer to actual performance on the test. Additionally, the research study considered whether there is a difference in the ability to predict success level between engineering and non-engineering students since engineering students use learning targets in both their math and engineering classes. Through questions on a student Google form and for a teacher interview, the researcher sought to determine student and teacher perceptions around using learning targets to inform student progress in learning. This research study sought to determine whether using learning targets, worked examples, and metacognitive strategies can ensure that students not only know what is going to be on the test, but also are better able to predict how they are going to do on the test

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