Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

M.S. in Pharmaceutical Science

First Advisor

Dr. Michael Repka

Second Advisor

Dr. Michael Repka

Third Advisor

Dr. Walter Chambliss

Relational Format



Hot melt extrusion (HME) has emerged as a viable approach for a wide range of pharmaceutical applications over the last few decades. The HME method is more efficient than other traditional technologies due to its high throughput, low residence time, lack of organic solvents, and a combination of intensive mixing and controlled temperature. Because of the ability to construct complex and personalized dosage forms depending on the requirements of the patient, three-dimensional printing (3DP) is an emerging approach in the fabrication of pharmaceutical dosage forms. The objective of the current study is to fabricate Lidocaine HCl ocular inserts by HME and 3DP. Various polymers at different concentrations were used to finalize the formulation. The inserts were analyzed for different physicochemical properties such as weight uniformity, content uniformity, thickness, pH, folding endurance and drug release characteristics. Surface morphology and crystalline characteristics of the inserts were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) respectively. The results demonstrated that the inserts had uniformity of weight and thickness with desired film properties and surface pH near neutral value (6.50 -6.78) The DSC analysis revealed the transformation of crystalline Lidocaine HCl into amorphous form. The inserts were stable at room temperature for 30 days and showed no change in pH, folding endurance, and drug release values. There were minor changes in drug content studies. The finding indicate that the inserts can provide an alternate delivery system for local anesthesia in the eye.


Pharmaceutical sciences

Available for download on Friday, February 17, 2023