Honors Theses

Date of Award


Document Type

Undergraduate Thesis


Croft Institute for International Studies

First Advisor

Miguel Centellas

Relational Format



My thesis focuses on Euskadi ta Auskatasuna (ETA), a terrorist group in País Vasco, Spain and attempts to determine the causes behind ETA's violence. I focus on three areas of study: the political situation of País Vasco, the public opinion, and the economic situation of País Vasco. Data is collected from the Basque government, the EuskoBarómetro, and World Bank, and showed in correlation with ETA attacks to discern patterns. Due to limited data, my area of study focuses mainly on ETA's later years, when they were less active. This allows me to focus on the periods of the ceasefires in contrast to active years, to determine if one factor played more of a role in violence than the others. While the Basque case is unique in Spain, it has similarities to other cases of ethnic violence. As such, if the cause of Basque violence and their motivations towards reaching a ceasefire can be discovered, they may be implemented in other cases of ethnic violence, such as that of the Kurds in Iraq and Turkey. Through my research, I concluded that neither nationalist representation in the Basque Parliament or public opinion correlates with ETA attacks; however, increased economic prosperity led to decreased violence. While I found that political representation and public opinion were not consequential, it is possible that they played a small role which I was not able to discern through my research. As such, my research is inconclusive and I suggestive further study into looking into the causes of Basque violence and its demise. One such area for further study that I suggest is the internal structure of the group and how increased action from the state, including imprisoning leaders, may have led to the downfall of the group.


A thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for completion of the Bachelor of Arts degree in International Studies from the Croft Institute for International Studies and the Sally McDonnell Barksdale Honors College.

Included in

Sociology Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.