In this paper we first present an overview of Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E), contrasting the importance placed on the household in the FSRIE conceptual framework with the lack of explicit attention given it in FSR/E methodology. An initial 47-farm survey suggested that female household members play key roles in intensive crop production and off-farm income generation. A time allocation study during May-October, 1982, investigated the roles of female and male household heads and working age children in a representative 10-farm subsample. Results indicated greater women's contributions to livestock-related production activities than originally hypothesized and reduced time spent by families with female off-farm employment in household production activities. Based on these results, an agriculture-family resources para-professional technician team is suggested as an alternate extension model to be tested for U.S. and developing country limited resource farms.
Caldwell, John, Michael Smith, Vicki Karagianis, and Ruth Harris. 1983. "Time Use by Small Farm Families in Southwest Virginia: An Approach for the Inclusion of Household in Farming Systems Research and Extension." Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 01(1): Article 4. Available at: https://egrove.olemiss.edu/jrss/vol01/iss1/4