In this paper we first present an overview of Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E), contrasting the importance placed on the household in the FSRIE conceptual framework with the lack of explicit attention given it in FSR/E methodology. An initial 47-farm survey suggested that female household members play key roles in intensive crop production and off-farm income generation. A time allocation study during May-October, 1982, investigated the roles of female and male household heads and working age children in a representative 10-farm subsample. Results indicated greater women's contributions to livestock-related production activities than originally hypothesized and reduced time spent by families with female off-farm employment in household production activities. Based on these results, an agriculture-family resources para-professional technician team is suggested as an alternate extension model to be tested for U.S. and developing country limited resource farms.

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