The general adoption of "Arabic" numerals by European bookkeepers occurred at least five hundred years after their introduction to the scholarly world. The early availability yet late adoption of this numeration is shown to be due to several factors, not least to interplay between the culture and cultural conservatism of clerks and the educational and intellectual changes of the early Italian Renaissance.
Durham, John W.
"Introduction of Arabic numerals in European accounting,"
Accounting Historians Journal: Vol. 19
, Article 2.
Available at: https://egrove.olemiss.edu/aah_journal/vol19/iss2/2