Using an environmental contingency approach, Johnson and Kaplan  argued that virtually all management accounting practices used at the time of their study had been developed by 1925 in response to increased uncertainty caused by geographical expansion and large-scale operations. During the 1821 to 1860 subperiod, the Hudson's Bay Company had significant uncertainty which was largely a result of the dynamic environment of its fur-trade operation. Consequently, it should have developed management accounting practices in response to uncertainty. Moreover, the management accounting practices should have been less extensive in the subperiods before and after 1821 to 1860, as these subperiods had less uncertainty. The Company's accounting and related records were examined for 1670 to 1914, and provided evidence to support the contention of Johnson and Kaplan that management accounting practices evolved positively with uncertainty.
Spraakman, Gary P.
"Management accounting at the historical Hudson's Bay Company: A comparison to 20th century practices,"
Accounting Historians Journal: Vol. 26
, Article 3.
Available at: https://egrove.olemiss.edu/aah_journal/vol26/iss2/3