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Since the first printers settled in Castile, books were regulated as a basic necessity and their retail prices were controlled. The bestselling works were sacred prayer books. The printing monopoly in Castile was enjoyed by a Flemish workshop (Plantin). In 1732 Antonio Bordazar de Artazu, authored, printed and distributed to the authorities a Memorandum in which he tried to prove that Spanish printers were able to print books at lower prices and still maintain quality standards. This Memorandum presented a costing model, and provides an early example of the use of cost accounting to challenge a monopoly in Spain.



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