This article examines the branch ledger of a Florentine firm in 13th century Provence, and its relationship to contemporaneous Tuscan account books. It is concluded that the ledger was part of a sophisticated accounting system, with a debit and credit for every item and a serious attempt at annual balancing, thus constituting the earliest known example of commercial double entry.
Lee, Geoffrey A.
"Coming of age of double entry: The Giovanni Farolfi ledger of 1299-1300,"
Accounting Historians Journal: Vol. 4
, Article 6.
Available at: https://egrove.olemiss.edu/aah_journal/vol4/iss2/6