Faculty and Student Publications

Document Type


Publication Date



© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. During a 33-year sampling period, we observed species richness and calculated species evenness and Shannon Diversity for understory woody seedlings and herbaceous species on three small islands in Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, and noted consistency of dominant plant species over time. Seedlings and herbaceous species were recorded and measured in 25 permanent plots that were created on the three islands in 1978. The understory species data were compiled by frequency and dominance of woody seedlings and herbaceous species. Data from 250 individual quadrats show that species richness more than doubled from 41 in 1978 to 83 species on all three islands in 2011. Species evenness on all the islands remained relatively constant in each of the four samplings. The combined Shannon’s Diversity for the three islands rose from 2.76 in 1978 to 3.37 in 2011. Dominant species in the study were Aralia nudicaulis, Gaultheria procumbens, Gaylussacia baccata, Maianthemum canadense, and Tsuga canadensis seedlings.

Relational Format

journal article



Accessibility Status

Searchable text


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.