Honors Theses

Date of Award


Document Type

Undergraduate Thesis


Croft Institute for International Studies

First Advisor

Michèle Alexandre

Relational Format



This thesis investigates the contradiction between Egypt's international legal obligations to protect religious freedom and its state practice. Chapter 1 gives a brief history of the relationship between religious freedom and state authority in the Roman, Islamic, and Holy Roman Empires and the early formations of international legal protections of freedom of religion in the wake of the Thirty Years War and then WWI centuries later. Chapter 2 looks at the formation and content of the current international standards of religious freedom, focusing on the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Chapter 3 looks at case studies of possible violations of these standards in Egypt and concludes that the two main avenues which they arise are the public order interpretation of the Egyptian courts and the nature of the regime itself, creating rules and practices that discriminate against and repress the religious expression of religious minorities. Chapter 4 considers possible strategies to bring Egypt under compliance, focusing on these two avenues, emphasizing the need to change both regime behavior and the courts interpretation of public order.


A thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for completion of the Bachelor of Arts degree in International Studies from the Croft Institute for International Studies and the Sally McDonnell Barksdale Honors College.

Included in

Law Commons



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