Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ph.D. in Health and Kinesiology


Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation Management

First Advisor

Jasper M. Loftin

Second Advisor

Melinda Valliant

Third Advisor

Scott Owens

Relational Format



The many benefits of participation in a regular physical activity program are well-documented (Haskell et al., 2007; Pate et al., 1995). Brisk walking and jogging are commodes of exercise that is easily measured and evaluated by a self-report method that is comin both clinical and research settings. Some research has suggested that walking for distance as opposed to walking for time may be a stronger predictor of overall amount of accumulated exercise or physical activity (Williams, 2012a). To our knowledge, research has not been conducted directly comparing a distance-based versus time-based brisk walking prescription for the improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. The primary purpose of this study was to compare walking/running for distance to walking/running for time as part of a weight loss intervention to assess similarities or differences. Another purpose was to evaluate included the feasibility of a previously published regression equation in predicting energy expenditure for walking or running for a one-mile distance before and after exercise weight loss intervention. This study folloa between-subjects, repeated measures design with each participant reporting for pre-intervention as well as post-intervention testing. Twenty-one overweight, but otherwise healthy participants [10 for distance-based (dist) group, 11 for time-based (time) group] were recruited but only 15 participants completed the study (9 time, 6 dist). Informed consent was obtained from the participants who fit the inclusion criteria based on the physical activity readiness questionnaire and body composition measurements using dxa. Participants were required to complete four testing sessions at the beginning of intervention and three testing sessions at the completion of intervention. Each testing session was separated by 24 hours. The time intervention group walked and ran for self-reported exercise time completed per day, and accumulated per week. The dist intervention group walked and ran for self-reported exercise distance completed per day, and accumulated per week. Each participant was measured for the following postabsorptive variables: lipid panel which included (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides), glucose, resting metabolic rate (rmr). Body composition, vo2 max, measured kcal/mile and predicted kcal/mile were also measured before and following intervention. A mixed-factor repeated- measures anova (rm-anova) was used to compare all cardiovascular disease risk-related dependent variables before and after intervention (body weight, body composition, blood lipids & glucose, rmr, vo2 max) for within-subjects and between-subjects comparisons. A mixed-factor repeated-measures anova was also used to compare weekly adherence rates to the exercise program. If interactions occurred, they were folloup with a sidak adjustment for multiple pairwise comparisons. Overall, the groups adhered to the exercise programs at similar rates. Significant interactions were shown for mean body weight loss between groups as well as mean blood glucose level (p < 0.05). The dist group lost an average of 4.0 kg while the time group gained an average of 1.1 kg. The dist group exhibited a decline in their blood glucose level by an average of 10.5 mg/dl while the time group shoan increase in their blood glucose level by an average of 4.7 mg/dl. Additionally, running one-mile was significantly more expensive metabolically than walking the mile at both pre- and post-intervention. Also, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption was significantly greater in the five minutes following running compared to walking. To the best of the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to directly compare a distance-based vs. A time-based exercise program for walking and running for improvement of risk factors of cvd. The results of the particular study would suggest that a distance-based exercise prescription of walking or running should provide a clinician or researcher with a closer estimation of overall ee and resultantly weight loss and reduction of particular risk factors for cvd.

Included in

Kinesiology Commons



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