Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ph.D. in Music



First Advisor

Michael Worthy

Second Advisor

Whitney Webb

Third Advisor

Andrew Paney

Relational Format



This study investigated the teaching behaviors of student teachers in a beginning band setting and identified their instructional targets to compare the data between the participants from two different conditions, the on-podium condition and the off-podium condition. Previous research of expert and experienced teachers in a beginning band setting suggests those teachers were mobile during instruction, were proactive in managing transition periods, remained off the podium for greater durations while providing instruction, used modeling frequently, and provided specific directives toward goal attainment. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether student teachers more closely exhibit the instructional strategies of expert teachers if they are encouraged to become more mobile in the classroom. The participants were nine student teachers from regional, state, and flagship universities in the southeastern United States. Each participant was observed and video recorded over two separate 20-minute segments: 20 minutes in the on-podium condition and 20 minutes in the off-podium condition. Unique to this study was that student teachers were asked to remain off the podium for a specific amount of time so that an equal comparison could be made of instruction between the two conditions in a beginning band setting. In comparison between the two conditions, there were 34 single-performance-trial rehearsal frames and 2 multiple-performance-trial rehearsal frames in the on-podium condition, while there were 26 single-performance-trial rehearsal frames and 4 multiple-performance-trial rehearsal frames in the off-podium condition. Analysis of the multiple-performance-trial rehearsal frames from the off-podium condition revealed traits similar to that of experts, including more teacher talk and full ensemble performance of less duration. Additionally, there were more episodes of performance approximation, and the mean duration of student behavior decreased from an average of 24.25 seconds in the on-podium condition to an average of 9.5 seconds in the off-podium condition. There was evidence to suggest that instruction improved in the off-podium condition. It is suggested that in their college courses, student teachers must be taught to remain off of the podium when providing instruction to beginning band students. Specific growth elements and recommendations are included in the study.



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