Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ph.D. in Health and Kinesiology


Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation Management

First Advisor

Jeffrey S. Hallam

Second Advisor

Melinda Valliant

Third Advisor

Allison Ford-Wade

Relational Format



In an effort to acknowledge the needs of student athletes after college, the NCAA designed the Challenging Athletes Minds for Personal Success (CHAMPS) Life Skills program to assist student athletes with this transition. In this program personal development outside of occupational skills is often ignored. Though physical activity appears to be of little focus of the CHAMPS Life Skill program, recent research revealed that student athletes' physical activity patterns surpass those of their peers while in college but this difference is not maintained among alumni student athletes and their peers (Sorenson, 2012). Self-regulation interventions have successfully mediated and predicted physical activity in different populations including college students, adults, older adults and adolescents (Hallam & Petosa, 2004; Hortz & Petosa, 2008; Petosa et al., 2003; Stadler et al., 2009; Wadsworth & Hallam, 2010). Self-efficacy has routinely been found to be a predictor of physical activity in different populations (Anderson et al, 2006; Rovniak et al., 2002; Wadsworth & Hallam, 2010; Umstattd & Hallam, 2007). The purpose of this study was to examine self-regulation, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy values and physical activity of former student athletes. One hundred and twenty former student athletes completed the online questionnaire measuring the selected Social Cognitive Theory variables and self-reported physical activity. The questionnaire was designed to assess the selected SCT variables and physical activity. Mediation analysis was used to examine whether self-regulation mediated the relationship between self-efficacy, outcome expectancy value and physical activity. Baron and Kenny's (1986) approach to mediation analysis was used to examine theoretically plausible effects consistent with mediation. The purpose for mediation in this study is to examine whether self-regulation and outcome expectancy value mediates the relationship between self-efficacy and physical activity. A mediating effect of self-regulation and outcome expectancy value was found. The mediating effect shows that there is a third variable contributing to the effect exercise self-efficacy has on physical activity. Though a mediating effect was found, forty five percent of participants did not meet the USDHHS and ACSM physical activity guidelines. The results from this study can be used to inform the development of physical activity programs that will facilitate participation in a physically active lifestyle for college student athletes beyond their college years. The results provide a good starting point for a better understanding a social cognitive perspective on explaining exercise behavior in former student athletes.


Emphasis: Health Behavior



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