Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ph.D. in Education



First Advisor

Suzanne Dugger

Second Advisor

Richard Balkin

Third Advisor

John Dugger

Relational Format



An analysis of the data revealed that the CITs’ reported being exposed to four clusters of multiple styles of supervision: (a) Affiliative, Directive, and a mixture of Non-Self-Disclosure – Self-Disclosure supervisory styles, (b) Authoritarian, Directive, and Non-Self-Disclosure supervisory styles, (c) Affiliative, Directive, and Self-Disclosure supervisory styles, and (d) a mixture of Authoritarian – Affiliative, Directive, and Self-Disclosure supervisory styles. Additionally, there was a significant moderate negative relationship between those reporting the Authoritarian – Affiliative dimension of supervisory style and their overall degree of DOS. This study clarifies and extends the theoretical framework used in the study. The theorized multiple styles of supervision from SCMCT and IDM was confirmed based on the findings in this study. Overall, the findings of the current study provide information to counselor educators and supervisors that can be used to better match supervisory styles to varying degrees of differentiation of self in CITs early clinical training with the aim to optimizing their degree of counseling self-efficacy. With the aim to increase the generalizability and extrapolating the findings, a replication is strongly recommended based on the promising framework and due to the low statistical power in the current study.

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