Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ph.D. in Business Administration



First Advisor

Paul Johnson

Second Advisor

Tony Ammeter

Third Advisor

Clay Dibrell

Relational Format



Three essays explore the role social cognitive theory (SCT) plays in the interactions between competitive and cooperative traits, goal structures, and behaviors on simultaneous competition and cooperation, termed coopetition. Though the concept is advantageous and popular both in theoretical and practical terms, there are large gaps in the study of the phenomenon at the individual and collective level. In Essay One, I present a theoretical model for the emergence of collective competition, cooperation, and coopetition. Specifically, I propose collective coopetition as a meso level, compilation construct based on the individual characteristics of team members, their interactions, and the situational and environmental influences. In Essay Two, I empirically test coopetition using a primary data sample of students. The study utilizes individual-level competitive and cooperative traits, goal interdependencies and goal perceptions to determine whether or not they engage in coopetition based on the triadic model of SCT. I find they each influence competitive and cooperative behaviors. In Essay Three, I identify the relationships and interplay of coopetition using competitiveness and cooperativeness, competitive and cooperative goal interdependence, and competitive and cooperative behaviors on new venture team outcomes. Using a primary data sample from the Table Top Games industry, I find entrepreneurs have higher levels of competitiveness than cooperativeness, and that their team perceptions of interdependence lead to whether the team engages in competitive or cooperative behaviors.



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