Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ph.D. in Chemistry

First Advisor

Jared H. Delcamp

Second Advisor

Brenda Hutton-Prager

Third Advisor

Susan Pedigo


University of Mississippi

Relational Format



The need for NIR fluorescent dyes is widely accepted for imaging and communications applications. Cyanines are a commonly used family of dyes for biological imaging due to their tunability, often rapid synthesis, ease of bioconjugation, intense molar absorptivities and strong NIR emissions. Since the invention of indocyanine green (ICG), many efforts have been made to improve on the design achieving farther red-shifted dyes with larger quantum yields and enhanced Stokes shifts. A series of squaraine, cyanine, and xanthene based dyes using the indolizine heterocycle as a donor in place of the commonly used indoline donor are discussed. The indolizine donor allows for red-shifts farther into the NIR region due to the indolizine being fully conjugated. Additionally, an enhanced Stokes shift is observed to enable high resolution imaging. These series of dyes are discussed with a focus on structure-property relationships concerning the effects on the photophysical properties.



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