Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ph.D. in Counselor Education


Leadership and Counselor Education

First Advisor

Richard S. Balkin

Second Advisor

Alan S. Lenz

Third Advisor

Stephanie L. Lusk

Relational Format



A number of authors have published articles that assert the efficacy of neurofeedback (NFB) in the treatment of people with anxious symptomatology. Despite this, many insurance companies identify NFB as experimental, which prohibits individuals from utilizing benefits to obtain this therapeutic treatment. In order to examine these discrepancies, the present meta-analyses were conducted and guided by research questions designed to examine the overall effectiveness of NFB, the impact of participant characteristics, and identify the if there is a significant difference in anxiety-spectrum outcomes. Twenty-six trials were divided based on design (14 single group [SG]; 12 between group [BG]) and analyzed in separate meta-analyses. Overall, results indicate that anxiety-spectrum self-report assessments reduced by nearly one (SG SDM = -0.94; BG g= -0.87) standard deviation unit with relatively small degrees of bias. Limitations and future directions are reported.



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