Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in History

First Advisor

Vivian Ibrahim

Relational Format



This thesis examines the impact of World Bank development policies on water shortagesin the Middle East and North Africa. Analyzing primary sources from the World Bank Group Archives, I contend that in funding water development projects in the 1960s and 1970s the World Bank and its subsidiaries, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association, created economic disincentives to water conservation. These disincentives likely made authorities unable to effectively respond to water shortages that developed in the latter half of the 20th century. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is used as a case study, which I argue illuminates active World Bank economic disincentive policies that were enacted throughout the MENA region.

Included in

History Commons



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