Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ph.D. in Music

First Advisor

Michael D. Worthy

Second Advisor

Rhonda S. Hackworth

Third Advisor

Alan L. Spurgeon


University of Mississippi

Relational Format



The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of tonic drone, and tonic drone and singing on the intonation accuracy of middle school and high school string students in a classroom setting. Participants (N=58) in the study included middle and high school string players from two school districts in northern Mississippi. Tonic drone (n=22) and tonic drone and singing (n=36) groups were comprised of one middle school and one high school class each. One group performed pitch–matching exercises that include a tonic drone while the second group performed pitch-matching exercises that included the tonic drone and singing. A pretest and posttest were given to determine intonation accuracy prior to and following treatment. Three pitches, E, F-sharp, and G were addressed during the three-week treatment period. Analysis of collected data using repeated measures SPANOVA testing found no significant interaction between groups from pretest to posttest. Neither the tonic drone or the tonic drone and singing group showed significant positive improvement in pitch accuracy. T-tests indicated the drone only group was statistically more accurate when posttest scores were compared. Future study should extend the length of treatment.


Music Education



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