Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Ph.D. in Counselor Education


Leadership and Counselor Education

First Advisor

Marilyn S. Snow

Second Advisor

Amanda Winburn

Third Advisor

Tabitha Young

Relational Format



The purpose of this study was to examine if an abbreviated version of the Adult Scale of Parental Attachment (ASPA; Snow, Sullivan, Martin, & Helm, 2005) could be developed with an emphasis on the instrument's item selection, factor structure, and psychometric properties. The ASPA, building upon attachment theory, is a self-report measure that assesses individuals' patterns of relating based on their relationships with both mother and father figures in childhood. Utilizing the conceptual underpinnings of Classical Test Theory and factor analysis, a 40-item version of the ASPA (called the ASPA-SF) was created from 1,075 archived responses through a test construction and test tryout. Building upon this procedure, the substantiation of the ASPA-SF was established through confirmatory factor analysis and validity to the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) with a separate group of 250 archived responses. Lastly, the theory of the instrument was tested on a population of 222 prison participants to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties. While the reliability of the instrument was maintained, the validity of the ASPA-SF could not be verified in working with a prison population. Due to the 84-item length of the original ASPA, the study was significant as an abbreviated version of the ASPA has the potential to save time for both the participant and administrator, and contribute to counseling research literature on patterns of relating.



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