Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

M.S. in Health Promotion


Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation Management

First Advisor

Martha Bass

Second Advisor

Allison Ford-Wade

Third Advisor

Melinda Valliant

Relational Format



Osteoporosis is a fast growing, worldwide public health problem. Also called, 'the silent disease' or 'fragile bone disease', osteoporosis results from low bone mass (Gammage & Klentrou, 2011; NOF, 2013; Swann, 2012). Currently, 44 million Americans have osteoporosis; 80% of which are women (NOF, 2011). Few studies, most implemented in other countries, have been conducted examining the consumption of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) (Ogur et al., 2007; Hostmark et al., 2011; McGartland et al., 2003). The global consumption of CSDs increased by four percent during 2009 to 2010. Within the US, 84% of American adolescents consume CSDs daily (Ratnayake & Ekanayake, 2012). The effect CSDs have on bone mineral density (BMD) may be of concern in the development of osteoporosis and related fractures (Danyliw et al., 2011). Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of CSD consumption and BMD. Eighty 18-24 year old female college students participated in this study. Participants completed questionnaires regarding osteoporosis risk factors, oesteoporosis knowledge and health beliefs, physical activity, and CSD intake. Participants were also scanned for femur neck, total femur, and lumbar spine BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Data were analyzed to determine the relationship between CSDs and BMD. Simple descriptive statistics were used to provide overall characteristics of the sample. Correlations and/or Chi Square assessed relationship between variables. No significant relationship was observed between BMD and CSD consumption, daily dairy intake, exercise, or knowledge of or health beliefs regarding osteoporosis (p < 0.05). Results from this study lead to the conclusion that CSDs do not alter BMD in young women.



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