By most accounts, black farmers in the United States are categorized as either limited resource or subsistence producers given an historic lack of access to credit, mechanical, and land resources. Additionally, advanced age and limited education have placed black farmers on the "endangered" list. Given these constraints to financial and human capital, black farmers have adopted survival strategies in an attempt to maintain their farms. Results presented here from research conducted in the Black Belt region of Alabama indicate that there is a high degree of participation in the off-farm workforce and reliance on off-farm income for black farm family survival. On the other hand, research findings also indicate that the disposition of farm land from one generation to the next continues to follow informal and traditional paths that may not be conducive to farm preservation strategies. The minority farm constituency can benefit greatly from programs that develop and encourage strategies to save the farm. Examples discussed include special education, efforts by minority owned financial institutions, access to expertise programs job training, and off-farm employment opportunities.
Zabawa, Robert, Arthur Siaway, and Ntam Baharanyi. 1990. "The Decline of Black Farmers and Strategies for Survival." Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 07(1): Article 9. Available at: https://egrove.olemiss.edu/jrss/vol07/iss1/9