Passage of the 1990 Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act resulted from the political influence of many environmental interest groups and, consequently, included many conservation provisions. As agricultural policy has increasingly reflected the environmental concerns of the public, farmers who participate in the Farm Program have adjusted their production practices to conserve land and water resources, minimize use of agrichemicals, and control animal wastes. Social exchange theory was used to examine personal and farm characteristics that could affect agroenvironmental attitudes, Farm Program participation, and conservation practices of Texas farmers (n = 1,063 farmers) in 199 1. One in four farmers did not participate in a federal commodity/conservation program. Less than 8 percent of the variation in regulatory and environmental attitudes was explained by personal and farm characteristics, compared to 30 percent of the variation in Farm Program participation and 14 percent in use of conservation practices. Agroenvironmental attitudes and most background characteristics were poor predictors of farm-related behaviors. Level of gross farm income was the best predictor of farmers' attitudes and behaviors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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