The article is a historical review of agricultural extension and the agricultural research system in Nigeria covering the period of the colonial period through the post-colonial period to the present. The impact of the oil boom on agricultural extension is also discussed. The aim is to identify factors that led to the erosion of the extension system and point the path to an effective revitalization of the system as part of the new Agricultural Transformation Agenda policy. The article discusses the theoretical roots of the Agricultural Development Programme that drives the Nigerian extension system, and the contribution that extension can make to the success of the agenda. Weaknesses of past extension efforts are highlighted and suggestions offered to redress them in the new policy.

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